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2011年11月学位英语语法考点精讲_图文

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北京地区成人本科学士学位英语 统一考试

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考试介绍
? 试卷包括五个部分:阅读理解、词语用法与语法结构、挑错、完形 填空和英汉互译。共85题。
? 第一部分:阅读理解,三篇短文(每篇900词),每篇文章后有五个 问题,共15题,考试时间40分钟。(30%) ? 第二部分:词语用法和语法结构,共30题,考试时间25分钟。 (30%)

? 第三部分:挑错,共10题,考试时间10分钟。(10%)
? 第四部分:完形填空, 一篇文章(约200词),共20题,考试时间 15分钟。 (10%)

? 第五部分:翻译,共10题,考试时间30分钟。(20%)

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语法
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 时态 语态:被动语态 情态动词: 完成时 虚拟语气 非谓语动词 各种从句(主、宾、表、定、状、同位语从句) 主谓一致 倒装句 强调句
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动词的时态、语态及情态动词

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? 时态
? 一般现在式: ? 表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态:常和 always, usually, often ,sometimes, every day等时间状语连用。 ? 表示普遍的真理。由于是众所周知的客观事实, 所以一般不用时间状语。 ? 有些表示心理状态或感情的动词往往用一般现 在时。
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? 考试重点 ? 在时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来的动作:常用的连 词有as soon as, when, till ,if,unless , the moment等。
? Once you ___the theory, you will have no further difficulty. ? A. understand B. will understand ? C. understood D. have understood ? When the mixture ______, powerful force. ? A. will heat B. will be heated ? C. is heated D. has heated it will give off a

? They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they ________their exams. ? A. have finished B. finish ? C. finished D. was finishing
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? 一般过去时: ? 表示过去的动作或状态: 常和过去时间状语连用:just now, last year, an hour ago 等。
? You've already missed too many classes this term .You ____two classes just last week. ? A. missed B. would miss ? C. had missed D. have missed

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used to do sth :过去常常做… be used to doing sth: 习惯于做某事 ? ? ? ? ? I _____ take a walk in the morning. A used to B am used to C was used to D use to

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? It is high time (that )…句型中, 谓语动词用过去时 ? Don’t you think it is time you _____smoking? ? A. give up B. gave up ? C. would give up D. should give up

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? 一般将来时

? will (shall)+原形动词: 表示将来的动作或状态。
? be going to +动词原形: 表示马上就要发生的事情或 打算好要做的事。 ? be to +动词原形: 表示安排或计划好了的动作。 ? be about to +动词原形: 表示即将发生的动作。

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? 某些表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词如: go ,come, begin, arrive, leave 等的现在 进行时可表示将来。 ? ? ? ? Is the party almost over? I think so. A lot of people __ to leave. A is beginning B begin C are beginning D have beginning

? I won’t be free Friday morning. I ___ a friend off. ? A am seeing B shall be seen ? C have seen D shall have seen

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? 动词进行时的形式: ? 现在进行时: am/is/doing ? 过去进行时:was/were/doing

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? 有些瞬间动词或表示状态的动词不能用于 进行时态。如appear, believe, declare, hate, have ,hear, know, like, love, need, own, seem, see, sound, taste, want, wish等。

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when 和while 的用法; ? 1)I fell and hurt myself while I _____tennis. A. was playing B. am playing ? C. play D. played ? 2)When you ______this over with her, you should not see her any more. ? A. talk B. talked ? C. will talk D. talking ? One of the guards _____ when the general came in, which made him very angry. ? A. has slept B. were sleeping C, slept D. was sleeping

? when作并列连词,表示“(这时)突然”之意时,表示时间上的点,引 导的并列分句用一般过去时,另一个并列分句用过去进行时。 ? while表示持续的一段时间,引导的句子用过去进行时。

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? 动词完成时的形式:

? 现在完成时:has/have +done ? 过去完成时:had done ? 将来完成时:shall/will have done

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? 现在完成时:表示过去某时开始的动作一直 延续到现在, 并且可能会继续延续下去
? 常见时间词:just, yet, already, lately, recently, this year ? since+时间点+过去时 ? for+时间段

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? _____ has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he ______ to China? ? A. How soon, comes ? B. How often, got ? C. How long, came ? D. How far, arrived

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? 英语中有些动词不能延续, 因此不能和表示延续的时间状语连用。

? He has _____the army for ten years and is now an officer. ? A. gone into B. joined in ? C. been in D. come into
? Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . ? A. has begun B. had begun ? C. has been on D. began

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? have (has) been to 和have (has)gone to 的区别 ? have (has )been to :去过某地(表示某人 的一种经历), 可以和once, twice, often , never ,ever 连用。 ? have (has) gone to : 去某地了(表示某人 已经离开此地, 在去某地的路途上或已在某地, 所以一般来说此句型只用于第三人称)。 ? Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . ? A.has gone B. went ? C.will go D. has been

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? 在“This is the first time…”结构中,后面 的从句用现在完成时。也可以用it代替this ? This is the first time that I ______ Jane. ? A have met B meet ? C had met D met

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? 在“It/This is +形容词最高级+名词后面的从 句中,用现在完成时。 ? This is one of the best books she has ever read.

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? 在“It is/has been +时间段+since…后边 用过去时。” ? It has been twenty years since I ___ my hometown. ? A had left B left ? C have left D leave

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? ?

过去完成时 表示在过去的某一时间或动作之前已经完成了的动作 ( 即 过 去 的 过 去 ) 。 这 个 过 去 的 某 一 时 间 可 用 by, before等介词或连词引导的短语或一个从句来表示。 Anne asked Tom ____the key. A. When he left B. where he had left C. How he left D. why did he left
About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese _____ paper. A. invented B. had invented C. have invented D. had been invented
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? 表示从过去某一时间开始, 一直持续 到另一个过去的时间的动作。 ? The chemistry class _______for five minutes when we hurried there. ? A. had been on B. was on ? C. has been on D. would be on
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? 过 去 完 成 时 常 用 在 no sooner …than…, hardly/scarcely/barely…when…一…就… 句型之中, 句子倒装。 ? Scarcely had the baby cried ____ the nurse rushed to carry him. ? A. than B. when ? C. as D. while ? No sooner had they got the goods covered up ____it started raining hard. ? A. when B. than C. then D. after
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? 将来完成时 ? 表示在将来某一时间以前完成的动作。 ? By the time next year, I shall(will) have lived here for 20 years.

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? By the time John gets home, his aunt______.
(1995年25题) ? A. will have ? C. will have left B. leaves D. is leaving

? By next year he ____ in New York for five years. ? A has worked B has been working ? C works D will have worked

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? 现在完成进行时 ? 表示从过去某时一直延续到现在的一个动作, 这个动作 一般会继续延续下去,或是到说话时结束, 但是强调到 说话时为止一直在做的动作。

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have/has + been +doing

? I ______on the door for ten minutes now without an answer. ? A. was knocking B. am knocking ? C. knocking D. have been knocking

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? 句子中大多数情况下时态要统一,但在特殊情况 下存在时态的不一致。 ? The teacher said that the Yellow River ___ the second largest river in China. ? A was B is C would be D had been

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? 被动语态

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? 被动语态的形式 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? I am praised I have been praised I am being praised She was praised He had been praised We were being praised

He will be praised They will have been praised I should be praised
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? 考试重点:

? l 感官动词和使役动词的被动语态。 ? l 情态动词的被动语态。 ? l 用主动表示被动的含义

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? 感官动词及使役动词(如:see, feel , hear, watch, make)在主动语态中用无to 不定式 做宾补, 改为变动语态时要加to 。 ? The middle-aged man was seen _____out of the house on the afternoon of the murder. ? A. came B. come C. to come D. have come
? Because of many mistakes, she was made ___ these letters again. ? A type B to typing C typed D to type
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? 情态动词的被动语态:构成:情态动 词+be +过去分词。 ? The work must be finished before lunch.

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? 用 主 动 表 示 被 动 的 含 义 。 常 用 : need/require +doing sth (=to be done) (此句型主语大多为物) ? ? ? ? ? My room is a mess. It needs _______. A to be tidying up B. tidying up C. to tidy up D. tidied up

? It is hot and dry; the flowers need____. ? A being watered B be watered ? C to water D to be watered

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? 少数几个不及物动词如clean, read, sell, wash等以及表示状态或特征的系动词如 appear, prove, seem, sound等用主动语 态表达被动意义。
? The book ___ well. ? A is sold B sells C has been sold D sell

?
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? 情态动词

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? 考试重点:

? 情态动词+完成时

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? must +现在完成时:表示对已发生的事情的一种肯定 的猜测。 ? Mr. Green _______my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now. (1998 年44题) ? A. must have received ? B. must have failed to receive ? C. must receive ? D. must fail to receive ? Since this road is wet and slippery this morning, it ____ last night. ? A must rain B was raining ? C must have rained D may rain

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? may/might +have done 表示不太确定的推测。 ? I can’t find the recorder in the room. It ___ by somebody. ? A must have taken ? B may have taken ? C may have been taken ? D should have been taken

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? should (ought to )+完成时: 表示应该做 的事情而没有做, 否定式表示不该做的事情却做 了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。 ? You ought __ the matter to the manager the day before yesterday. ? A to report ? B to have reported ? C to reporting ? D have reported

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I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I ______him earlier. A had a telephone B have phoned C should have phoned D should be phoned

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? Sorry, officer. I ____ at 80 miles but I didn’t see any sign in the area telling people how fast they can drive. ? A should not drive ? B shouldn’t have driven ? C mustn’t drive ? D can’t drive
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? could +完成时:表示能做的事情而没有做。表示对 过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜, 遗憾。

? He gave up a career that ____ to his final success. ? A could have led ? B would lead ? C should have led ? D must lead

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? 虚拟语气

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? 虚拟语气的基本形式

? 表示与现在情况相反的虚拟语气 ? If+主语+were/v-ed(动词过去式) ?主 句 主 语 +would (should/could/might) +动词原形.

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? If I the meaning of the word, I have to look it up. ? A. know, wouldn’t B. have known, wouldn’t ? C. knew, wouldn’t D. don’t know, would

? Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____the same language? ? A. spoke B. speak ? C. had spoken D. will speak

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? 表示与过去情况相反的虚拟语气
? If +主语+had done(过去完成式) ? 主句主语+would (should/could/might)+ have done.

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? If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time. ? A. would come B. would have come ? C. had come D. came

? If you what he said, you could have avoided repeating such a bad mistake. ? A、paid attention to ? B、had paid attention to ? C、noticed ? D、had noticed to 49

? 表示与将来情况相反的虚拟语气
? If+主语+should/were to do ? 主句主语+ would (should/could/might) +动词原形.

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? If the sun ______in the west, I would follow you. ? A. were to rise B. was to rise ? C. had risen D. would rise

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错综时间句中,虚拟条件句和主句动作发生的时不一致,这时主句和从 句的谓语动词应当根据各自所指的时间选用适当的形式. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you now. A. wouldn’t be smiling B. couldn’t have smiled C. won’t smile D. didn’t smile

If you ____that late movie last night, you wouldn’t be so sleepy. A hadn’t watched B haven’t watched C wouldn’t have watched D didn’t watch

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? 省略if而采用倒装语序的条件句
? 在虚拟条件句中, 如谓语包含were , had, should等词, 则可以把这些词放到 主语前面, 省略if

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?

before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful diner party. ? A. Had they arrived B. Would they arrive ? C. Were they arriving D. Were they to arrive.
? _____you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions. ? A. If I realized B. Had I realized ? C. Did I have realized that D. As I realized
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? ______, I should ask them some questions. ? A. should they come to us ? B. If they come to us ? C. Were they come to us ? D. Had they come to us ? _______for your help, we’d never have been able to get over the difficulties. ? A. Had it not B. If it were not ? C. Had it not been D. If we had not been
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? 含蓄条件句 有的时间,假设情况并不是通过条件从句来 表示,还可以用介词短语、上下文或其他方 式来表示,其谓语动词也常常需要用虚拟语 气。常用介词或介词短语有without, but for,otherwise, or.

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? Without heat and sunlight, plants on the earth _____well. ? A. would not grow B. will not grow ? C. had not grow D. would not be grown ? ? But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday. ? A. should have B. would have had ? C. would have D. will have had ? ? ? ? ? He must have had an accident, or he ______then. A. would have been here B. had to here C. should be here D. would be here

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? 以wish (that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语 从句中要用虚拟语气。 ? 表示现在或将来的愿望用:主语+wish + 从句(主语+过去时); ? 表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+ wish +从句(主语+过去完成时);

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? I wish you _____like that. ? A. don’t talk B. won’t talk ? C. wouldn’t talk D. not to talk

? I wish you ______with us tomorrow. ? A. would go B. did go ? C. had gone D. will go

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? Peter wishes that he _____law instead of literature when he was in college. ? A. could study B. studied ? C. had studied D. would study

? I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _______there. ? A. were ? C. had been B. would be D. will be
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? 在as if , as though引导的从句中, 如果谈论的是不可 能或不真实的情况时, 它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语 气, 动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。
? He talks as if he ? A. knows ? C. had known ____everything in the world. B. knew D. would have known

? ? ? ? ?

He looked as if he ____ A. hasn’t had meal B. didn’t have a meal C. hadn’t had a meal D. doesn’t have a meal

for a year.

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? 在具有愿望、请示、建议、命令等主观愿望的动 词后的宾语从句中,需要用虚拟语气,形式为 should+动词原形或直接用动词原形。 ? 常用的这类动词: insist(坚持),require (要求),request(要求), suggest(建 议),propose(建议), recommend(建 议), order(命令),command(命令, demand(要求),advise(忠告).

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? Father insisted that the homework _____before ten in the evening. A、is to be finished B、ought to be finished C、be finished D、had to be finished

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? 在某些表示愿望、请求、建议、命令等形容词之后 的主语从句,需要使用虚拟语气。其结构是 should + 动词原形或者只用动词原形。
? 常见的这类形容词有:necessary(必要的), important(重要的),essential(紧要的), urgent(紧迫的),advisable(合理的), desirable(渴望的).

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? I don’t think it advisable that Tim _____ to the job since he has no experience. ? A. is assigned ? B. will be assigned ? C. be assigned ? D. has been assigned

?

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? would rather (宁愿)用来表达主观意愿时,之 后的宾语从句也需要用虚拟语气:would rather that+过去式 ? I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner. ? A. come B. had come ? C. came D. have come

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? It is time (high time) that …该做某事了。 谓语动词用过去时 ? It’s high time we ___ something to stop traffic accident. ? A do B will do C did D must do ? C ? Don’t you think it is time you __ smocking? ? A give up B gave up C would give up D should give up
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非谓语动词

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? 不定式 ? 动名词 ? 分词

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? 动词不定式 ? 考试重点: ? 动词不定式的基本结构和用法(尤其是复合结构, 否定式,被动式,完成式等。) ? 省略to的情况 ? stop, remember, forget,go on…接不 定式和动名词的区别。 ? have sth done 和have sb do sth。
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? 基本形式: ? 一般式: to make, to be made ? 完成式: to have made, to have been made

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? 感官动词如hear, watch, listen to, notice, observe, see, look at 等接不带to的不定式做宾语补足语。 ? They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. ? A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

? ? ? ? ? ?

使役动词make, have, let后接不带to的不定式做宾语补足语。 I would have you ___ if I got the message. A know B to know C. knew D. known

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? 有些固定的结构接不带to的不定式 ? do nothing/anything/everything but+ do sth ? can’t help but +do sth ? have no choice but+ do sth ? had better +do sth ? would rather+ do sth
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? 接动名词和不定式意思不同:

? ? ? ? ? ?

remember to do/doing forget to do/doing regret to do/doing stop to do/doing go on to do/doing ……

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? The old man walked slowly, stopping frequently _____. ? A. on rest B. at rest ? C. resting D. to rest
? Men will never stop _____ for new ways of getting new energy. ? A. search B. to search ? C. searching D. searched

? ? ? ?

---- The light in the office is still on. ---- Oh, I forgot___. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
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? 特殊不定式短语(不定式的复合结构): ? for/of+名词(代词)+不定式(短语) ? It is necessary _____ the papers immediately. ? A. for you to hand in B. that you hand out ? C. your hand in D. for your hand in ? It is brave ___ ___ English at the age of 60. ? A of her to learn B for her to learn ? C of her learning D for her learning
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? have sth done 和 have sb do sth的用法: ? We are going to have our office _____to make room for a new engineer. ? A. to rearrange B. rearrange ? C. rearranged D. rearranging ? I’ll _____that I’m a qualified engineer. ? A. have you know B. have known you ? C. have you knowing D. have you known

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? need, want, require, deserve, demand, bear等动词后,跟不定式时,用被动形式表示 被动含义;跟动名词时,用主动形式表被动含义。 此时主语多为物。 ? This book deserves mentioning / to be mentioned. ? The room needs cleaning / to be cleaned.

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? ? ? ? ?

动名词 考试重点: 动名词的逻辑主语,完成式,被动式,否定式 动名词做介词的宾语 常跟动名词的结构

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? 常跟动名词作宾语的动词: ? admit, acknowledge, avoid, appreciate, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy finish, imagine, include, involve, miss, mind, suggest, etc.

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? People appreciate ___ with him because he has a good sense ? A. to work ? B. to have worked ? C. working ? D. having worked ? The police accused him of setting fire but he denied __ in the area on the night of the fire. ? A. to be ? B. to have been ? C. be ? D. having been ?

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? 动名词用在介词后 ? object to, look forward to, dream of, put off, succeed in, feel like, think of, stop from, thank for , be used to, be accustomed to等。

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? It is no use…, ? It is no good…, ? It is useless…等句型跟动名词: ? It is no use crying over spilt milk. ? It’s no good trying to persuade him not to do that.

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? There is no … 结构中… ? There is no point (in) arguing with him. ? There is no sense joking about such matters.

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? 一些其它的结构也常要求用V-ing ? have trouble/difficulty / problem/ a hard time/fun (in) doing sth ? It is a waste of time/money doing sth ? spend time in doing sth ? feel like doing sth ? cannot help doing sth ? be busy/worth doing sth

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? 动名词的被动式: ? No one avoid _____by advertisements. ? A. influenced B. influencing C. to influence D. being influenced

? 动名词的逻辑主语:当动名词的逻辑主语是代词 时可使用形容词性的物主代词或代词的宾格。 ? He forgot about _____him to attend my wife's birthday party. ? A. I asking B. my asking C. me to ask D. mine to ask
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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

分词 考试重点: 分词在句中的作用 现在分词和过去分词的区别 分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语是否一致 分词的独立主格结构 with (without) 引导的分词的独立结构

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? the developing countries ? the developed countries ? the oppressing class ? the oppressed class

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? 现在分词表示主动,且动作在进行; ? 过去分词表示被动,或动作已完成。

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? 作定语:
? 现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(与名词 有主谓关系),过去分词修饰承受该动作的名 词(与名词是动宾关系).

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? a sleeping baby=a baby who is sleeping ? a running dog=a dog which is running ? a broken glass=a glass which is broken ? a beaten team=a team which is beaten

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? 作宾补:

? 在see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse, glance等感官动词及have, keep, get, catch, leave, set, start, send 动词后面作宾语补语的成分。

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? I caught him doing something else in class. ? We found the path covered white snow.

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? Standing on the bank, the children watched the ship ______with all kinds of goods. ? A. loading B. being loaded ? C. loading D. having loaded ? The farmer caught the boys ___his apples. ? A. stole B. stealing ? C. to steal D. would steal
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? 表语:

? 分词作表语当主语是指人时,多用过去分词, 译成“某人对某人/物感到…”
? 主语指物时用现在分词,译成“某物是/使 人、令人…的”

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? She told me that it was the most _____ gift her daughter had received. ? A. delighting B. delighted ? C. delights D. delight

? My parents are _____ with my progress. ? A. please B. pleased ? C. pleasing D. being pleased

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? 作状语: ? 分词作状语分词在句子中作状语,可以表示 时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。

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? He was sitting at his desk, looking at his watch. ? When heated, ice will be changed into water.

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? 分词做状语相当一个状语从句。 现在分词与句子主语在 逻辑上是主动关系,过去分词与句子主语在逻辑上是被动 关系。 ? ___ full preparations, they thought it better to postpone the meeting till next week. ? A Not to have made ? B. Making not ? C. Not having made ? D. Having not made ? ___, he felt too nervous to speak. ? A. Having been watched by a crowd of people ? B. Watching by a crowd of people ? C. Having watched by a crowd of people ? D. Being watched by a crowd of people ?

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? 分词做状语时,逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。 ? ____ from space, our earth ( with water covering 70%of its surface, ) appears as a “blue planet.” ? A. Seen B. Seeing ? C. To be seen D Having seen

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? 分词的复合结构:(分词的独立主格)

? ? ? ? ?

_______, they went swimming. A. Being a hot day B. It was a hot day C. Due to a hot day D. The day being hot

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? The whole group took part in the discussion, each member __the responsibility of leading one meeting. ? A has B having C has had D had
? ___nothing more to discuss, the secretary got to his feet, said goodbye and left the room. ? A. as being B there was ? C, for being D there being
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? with (without) 引导的分词的独立结构。
? 1 ) He walked across the meeting room ____everyone looking at her. ? A. with B. as C. while D. when

? 2 ) With the old man ______the way, we had no trouble in finding that mysterious cave. ? A. leading B. led C. lead D. to be led

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各种从句

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主语从句

由连词that, whether 引导的主语从句中,that, whether 只起引导作用, 不担任成分, 不能 省略。
That the earth is round is true. (It is true that the earth is round.) ______was unimportant. A. Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not B. No matter how he enjoyed our dinner C. If he enjoyed our dinner D. What he enjoyed our dinner
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? 以关系代词what, whatever, whoever…引导的主 语从句。What 有时可以用来表示the thing which 这种意思,表示一样东西或一件事情。在句子中担任成 份, 不能省略, 语序为陈述句的语序。 ? ________I saw was two men crossing the street. ? A. What B. Whom C. Who D. That ? ________was not the way the event happened. ? A. Which the press reported ? B. That the press reported ? C. what did the press report ? D. What the press reported
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? 句型It is desirable (suggested, necessary, requested, ordered, proposed, urgent) +that+主语+should (可省略)+V(动词原形)。 ? It’s urgent that a meeting _______before the final decision is made. ? A. will be arranged B. must be arranged ? C. be arranged D. would be arranged

? It is highly desirable that a new president _______for this university.
? ? ? A. is appointed B. will be appointed C. be appointed D. has been appointed
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? 表语从句 ? 用suggestion 等词表示愿望、建议、命令等情绪 时, 用虚拟语气, 从句中用should (可省略)+动 词原形。 ? The general’s command was that the soldiers _____their fort and carry out more important tasks. ? A. would leave B. leave ? C. left D. have left

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? 宾语从句 ? 宾语从句用陈述句的语序 ? Can you tell me ______about the city that makes people love it so much? ? A. it is what B. what it is ? C. what is it D. is it what

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? 介词后面的宾语从句
? The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware ______she had gone. ? A. where that B. of where ? C. of the place D. the place ? He was a man of fine character in all points ______he was rather timid. ? A. in that B. except that ? C. for that D. except for
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? suggest, insist, order, demand等动 词后作宾语时, 表示欲望、建议、命令等时, 用虚拟语气。

? His mother insisted that he _____the coat when going out. ? A. put on B. puts on ? C. to put D. putting on

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? 在下列情况下不能用if , 而用whether。

? 后跟不定式:He didn’t tell me whether to go or stay.
? 前面有介词:He raised the question of whether we could find the necessary money. ? 引导主语从句:Whether they win or lose is all the same to me. ? 后面直接跟or not :I wonder whether I’ll catch the last bus or not.

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? 定语从句
? He talked about the teachers and schools ___ he had ever visited. ? A which B. that C. whom D. who ? The company official _______I thought would be fired received a raise. ? A. whom B. whoever C. who D. of whom ? To get the job started, ___ I need is your permission. ? A. only what B. all what ? C. all that D. only that ? They had a meeting at ___ he addressed the current situation. ? A. that B. which C. whom D. where

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? 介词+关系代词
? The world in which (=where )we live is

made of matter.

? The man to whom you are talking is the

manager of our company.

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? 名词(代词)+介词+关系代词 ? There are nine planets in the solar system, some of which are much larger than our earth. ? There are some new terms in the article, the meaning of which may be difficult to the students.

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? Before her marriage, she spent a considerable time in that very part of Shanghai, _____she belonged. ? A. which B. to where ? C. to which D. at which

? The United States is composed of fifty states, two of _____are separated from the others by land or water. ? A. them B. that C. which D. those

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? 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句的区别 ? 非限定定语从句与主句之间常用逗号分开,对被修饰 的名词起附加说明, 有一定的独立性, 即使去掉, 主句的意思仍然完整, 只是内容不够具体。 ? 所用的关系代词与限定性定语从句基本相同, 但不能 用关系代词that 引导。 ? An old friend from abroad, ______I was expecting to stay with, telephoned me from the airport. ? A. that B. whom C. who D. which ?

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? 用that 不用which的情况
? 1.当先行词为 all, little, much, few, everything, none 等不定代词时关系代词用that而不用which. ? I will tell him all that you told me at the ball. ? 2.当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that, 不用 which. ? He asked about the factories and worke rs that he had visited.
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? 3.当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用 that, 而不用which. ? This is the best novel that I have ever r ead. ? 4.当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用that, 不 用which. ? The first sight that was caught at the G reat Wall has made a lasting impressio n on him.
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? 5.当先行词被the only, the very, the right等修 饰时,关系代词用that,不用which. ? It is the only book that he bought himself.

? 6.当先行词被 all, every, any, much, little, few, no等修饰时, 关系代词用that,不用which.
? You can take any room that you like.

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? 7.当主句是以which/who开头的特殊问句时, 定语从句关系代词一般用that而不用which.

? Which of the books that had pictures was worth reading? ? 8.在强调句型" It is ... that ..." 中,只用that, 不用which. ? It is in this room that he was born tw enty years ago.

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? 用as 不用which的情况 ? 在" such (the same) ... as ..." 句型中,关系代词要用 as, 而不用which.

? We need such materials as (not which) can b ear high temperature. ? 表示" 正如... 那样 "," 正象..." 之意时, 用as, 不用 which.
? Mary was late again, as had been expected. ? As 引导的定语从句可以放在主句前面, 也可以放在主句后 面或主句中间,而由 which引导的定语从句只能放在主句 后面。 ? As we all know, oceans cover more than 70% 122 of the earth.

The most important thing____ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that

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? 同位语从句

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? 同位语从句的先行词常为某些抽象名词, 如:news ; belief ,idea; fact; possibility; question; thought; promise; information; message; decision 等。

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? Would the news ______ he failed to pass the exam bother you? ? A. which B. that C. of which D. on which ? I have no idea _____ he has already gone abroad ? A. which B. that C. when D. where

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? 如果同位语从句所修饰的先行词是suggestion, advice; order; request proposal 等名词 的时候, 谓语动词用should+原形动词。 should 可以省略。 ? The order that the prisoner ____ free arrived too late. ? A be set B should set ? C would been set D set ?
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? 主谓一致

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1.谓语动词用单数
? 以单位数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动 名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般要 用单数动词。 ? To work hard is necessary. ? Reading without comprehension is no good.
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? 事件、国家、机构名称、书刊及其他作品的 名称(专有名词)用作主语时,谓语动词用 单数。如: ? The United States was formed in 1776.

? Roots is a novel about a black family.

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? 表示时间、距离、重量、度量、价值等 的复数形式主语,习惯上用单数谓语动 词。如:
? Two weeks was too long. ? Ten dollars is a small sum. ? Five times five makes twenty five.
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? 表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式, 作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:
? Linguistics is a branch of study on human language.

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? 有些名词形式是复数,意义为单数,作主语 时,要求单数动词。如:

? The news is a great encouragement to us.

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? To master the spirit of a foreign language___ not easy. ? A . is B. are

? All that can be done______. ? A. has been done B. has done ? C. have done D. were done
? When and where to build the new factory _____ yet. ? A. is not decided B. are not decided ? C. has not decided D. have not decided ?

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? The news coming from different parts of the world __ often extremely discouraging these days. ? A. was B. were

? Every means ____ been tried. ? A. has B. have
? Maths__ not easy to learn. ? A. is B. are
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? 主语是单数时,尽管后面跟 as well as (以及), no less than (不少于…多达),rather than(而 不是),more than (不止是,超过),but (除了), except(除…外),besides (加之,还有),with (和…一起,和…一块儿),along with (跟…一 起),together with(与…一起)等,谓语动词仍 用单数形式。 ? Professor Baker as well as six of his students is attending a conference in Boston.

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? A woman with a baby ____coming here. ? A. is B. are

? The girl as well as the boys___ learned to drive a car. ? A. has B. have

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? 用and 连接的成分表示单一概念时,动词谓语用单 数形式。如:
? The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting. ? A. has B. have C. are D. is

? The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. ? A. is C. are
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? 用and 连接的并列成分前面有each, every, many a, no等词修饰时,意义为单数,动词则相 应地用单数形式。如: ? Many a man__ the story. ? A. believe B. believes

? The boy and the girl each___ their own toys. ? A. has B. have

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谓语动词用复数
? 集体名词如people, police, public, youth等, 常用复数形式的谓语动词。 ? Most police wear uniforms.

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? 当表示民族的词与冠词合用充当主语时,谓 语动词用复数形式。如:

? The English are more conservative and less talkative than the Americans.

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? 某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人。作主 语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

? The rich are not always selfish.

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谓语动词可用单数也可以用复数 ? 就近一致: 有时谓语动词的人称和数和 最近的主语保持一致:

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? 用连词either…or, neither…nor, whether…or, not only …but (also), or等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数, 一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主 语一致。 ? Nobody but Jane ____ the secret. ? A. know B. knows C. have known known

D. is

? Not only a pen but also two books _______lost. ? A. was B. were ? Neither John nor I _____able to persuade Richard’s grandfather to attend the wedding.(03年11月) ? A. am B. are C. are to be D. is
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? 在倒装结构中,谓语动词往往和后面的第一 个主语取得一致。
? Between the two rows of trees _____ the teaching building. ? A. stand B. stands ? C. standing D. are

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? 一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时,谓 语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复 数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数。 这些短语有:a lot of (lots of ), plenty of, half of , two- thirds of , ninety percent of , part of, rest of , some of, none of 等。如:

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? A number of cars_______ in front of my house. ? A. was parked B. were parking ? C. is parking D. are parked ? Twelve percent of the workers here___ women. ? A. is B. are ? I have finished a large part of the book ; the rest _____more difficult. ? A. is B.are C.was D.were
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? 集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于 主语表示的意义。当表示整体时,谓语动 词用单数;当主语强调集体中的个体时, 谓语动词用复数(意义一致原则)。 ? 如: family , army, audience, crowd, crew, group, police, public, staff, team 等。

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His family__ watching TV. A. is B. are The audience ___ enormous. A. was B. were The audience ___ greatly moved at the words. ? A. was B were ? ? ? ? ?

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倒装句

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? 部分倒装
? Only放句首,引起句子的倒装

? Only then _____the importance of English. ? A. did I realize B. I realized ? C. realized I D. I had realized

? only修饰主语,不倒装。 ? Only Tom knows the answer.

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? 否定词(短语)放句首部分倒装。即“否定词+助动词/ 情态动词+主语+其他”。
? 表示否定意义的副词never, nor,neither, ? 表示半否定意义的副词hardly,few, seldom, little, ? 含有no和not的词组by no means(决不), in no time(很快), in no case (决不)at no time(在任 何时候都不),under no circumstances 在任何情 况下都不)not until, not only…but also, no sooner than, hardly when, scarcely when等

? Seldom ______ TV during the day. ? A. they watch B. are they watching ? C. have they watched D. do they watch
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? 以so开头,用 “so+助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语”表 示前面叙述的情况也适合于另一个人或物,译作 “也,同 样,也如此”。 ? 表示前面叙述的否定情况也适合于另一个人或物,用 “neither/nor+助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语”。 译作 “也不是,也没有”。 ? ? ? ? ? She plays the piano very well, ______. A. so every one of us does B. every one of us does C. so does every one of us D. so do every one of us

? She is not fond of cooking, _____I . ? A. so am B. nor am ? C. neither do D. nor do

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? as引导让步状语从句 ? Child as he is , he knows a lot. ? Much as I like it, I won’t buy it . ? ? ? ? ? _____, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John. A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled so much C. Much as I have traveled D. As I have traveled so much
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? 如果虚拟条件句的谓语含有were, should , had可以 把if省略而将这三个词放于条件句主语前构成倒装

? ________you were busy, I wouldn’t have bothered you with my questions. ? A. If I realized ? B. Had I realized ? C. Did I have realized that ? D. As I realized

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强调

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? 用助动词“do(does/did)+动词原形”来表 示强调 ? ? ? ? ? I ___ you about the meeting yesterday. A did tell B tell C had told D would tell

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? 强调句:It is/was + 被强调的部分 +that (who)+其它成分
? It was in that small room_____ they worked hard and dreamed of better days to come. ? A. where B. in which ? C. which D. that

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? not until的强调结构为:It is / was not until+从句/表时间的词+that+... ? It was not until she arrived in class _________realized she had forgotten her book. ? A. and she B. when ? C. she D. that she

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? 当Not until位于句首时,句子要倒装。主句倒装, 从句不倒装。 ? Not until I reminded him for the third time ______working and looked up. ? A. that he stopped ? B. does he stopped ? C. did he stop ? D. that he stopped

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