I. 任务型读写模板 第一段: 概括所给短文内容要点[约 30 字] 第二段: 过渡词引出主题句---自己的观点---理由[约 120 字] 第三段: 总结句 [约 20 字]
II. How do we write a summary?
(一) Steps for writing a summary(步骤) 1. Read：Read the passage for overall content (通读全文领略大意). 2. Find：Reread carefully, find out the topic sentences. 3. Rewrite：Write in our own words. 4. Join：In our final draft, insert transitional words and phrases where necessary. Attention: 1. Focus on main ideas and omit(省去) examples, details.(注重大意，省去详细的例子、细节) 2. When using the words and phrases in the original passage, do not include your own opinion, but be sure to use your own words.(引用原文的词句,不能添加自己的见解,但是要用自己的语言概括) 3. Write it in the third person. （第三人称） 4. Control the number of words about 30. (二) Styles of the given passage : argumentation 议论文,narration 记叙文,exposition 说明文 (三) The six elements of a narrative passage: who, when, where, what (event), how (process), why. Commonly used sentence patterns: 1.The passage/ story is mainly about (talks about) + a story/ phenomenon where/that +从句 2. The writer tells/shows/states us that … 3. As is shown in the passage, … 4. What the passage tells/shows/states us is that … (四) The elements of an argumentation a strong statement of opinion topic sentences support for the opinion supporting sentences conclusion/suggestions the purpose of the passage Commonly used sentence patterns: 1. This article shows us the importance /necessity of … 2. We can know from the passage （that）… 3. The passage mainly discusses (that)…
As far as the author is concerned, … In the passage, the author mainly stressed (that)… … From the passage, we know (that)…... The passage mainly tells us (that)… ... The writer states\thinks\ argues (that)… … The author points out (that)… … Tips:如果是议论文的阅读短文,则要尽可能客观简要地 转述阅读材料的观点。 (五) The elements of an exposition : 1. the topic—what, 2.the reasons—why, 3. the effects—how, 4. the solutions, 5.the conclusion. Commonly used sentence patterns : 1. It is stated in the article that… 2. According to the passage, we can know that … 3. In the passage, the author states that … 4. The passage points out that… 5. The passage introduces... to us, especially its ... , from which we know ... . 6. The passage tells us ... , including...(方法 1), ...(方法 2)and...(方法 3). 7. The passage points out that… 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
III. Sentence patterns for the body part.
(一) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (二) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Commonly used transitional sentences patterns: connecting your experience Actually, in real life, everyone can have an experience of … Having read the passage, I think of … After reading the passage, I am lost in thought, which reminds me of … This story reminds me of another story that happened to… This story reminds me of a similar experience of… Take myself for example, I experienced such a thing that many years ago, I … What is conveyed in the passage is that … There is no denying that … As the old saying goes, … Commonly used sentences patterns: Expressing your own ideas As for me,... In my opinion, ... As far as I am concerned,... From my point of view... I hold the view/belief that... Personally speaking, I believe that... According to my experience, I think that...
8. I firmly subscribe to the view that … 9. From where I stand, …. 10. On my personal note, …. (三) Commonly used transitional sentences patterns: for or against? 1. I agree with the statement that... 2. I do/ quite agree with the author... 3. I’m for the writer’s idea that... 4. I fully support the statement... 5. I can’t agree more with ... 6. I partly / don’t agree with what the writer said/the writer’s view. 7. I’m strongly against the writer’s idea. 8. This opinion sounds right/ reasonable, but is hardly practical. 9. Some people argue as if it is a general truth that... But to be frank, I cannot agree with them. IV. Commonly used sentences patterns: draw
something is just the other way around; yet; unlike; opposed to; as opposed to ; in contrast (to); on the contrary; different from this; as opposed to this; contrary to; whereas; while; but on the other hand; … 8) 举例关系:for example; for instance; in this case; namely; as you know; you may say; like; such as; in particular; including...; for one thing..., for another...; put it simply; It is interesting to note that... ; … 9) 强调关系：in fact; especially; particularly; moreover; naturally; what is more important; in reality; certainly; of course; indeed; in particular; it is certain／sure that...; to be strict; to be true; in truth 10)条件关系 : if; unless; lest; provided that; if it is the case; in this sense; once...; if possible; if necessary; if so; if not all; if anything; … 11)归纳总结类：generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, in a sense, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude; … 12) 目的关系：with this object; for this purpose; in order that; in this way, since; so that; on that account (由于那个缘故); in case; … 13)重申关系：in other words; that is to say; as I have said; again; once again; …
(1)To sum up/In short/In conclusion/ In a word/All in all, ... (2)Taking all the factors into account, we can draw a conclusion that... (3)From the discussion above, it can be safely concluded that... (4)To be brief, we should be aware of the importance of... (5)Therefore, it is necessary for us to ... (6)Only /in this way /when we... can we...
V. Commonly used linking words(词、句到篇需要使用的连接词)
1) 先 后 次 序 关 系 ： last but not least; to begin/ start/end with; finally; first of all; afterwards; following this; … 2) 因果关系： another important factor／reason of... ; since; as; for; in that...; owing to; due to; in view of; for this reason; as a result of this; therefore;...and so...; consequently; as a result; thus; so that...; in consequence; as a consequence; … 3) 转折关系：but; even so; however; though; even though; despite that; in spite of that; regardless of; yet...;and yet; … 4) 并列关系： and; also; too; as well as; either...，or...; both...and... ; … 5) ( 补 充 ) 递 进 关 系 ： furthermore; moreover; further; in this way ; still; not only...but also...; not...but...; in addition (to); additionally; … 6) 比较关系： similarly; in comparison with; when compared with; compared with; like...; similarly important; apart from (doing)...; ... rather than...，by doing so ;both…and...; in the same way; not only...but (also) ; … 7) 对照(不同点)：yet; still; for all of that; rather; neither ... nor; although; though; but; however;